Please welcome this important guest post by Student Pharmacist Megan A. Gerken, under the direction and mentorship of Dr. Jacqueline Cleary…
Bariatric surgeries including sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, and gastric bypass can be used to promote weight loss in morbidly obese patients.1,2 In gastric bypass, a smaller gastric pouch is created from the stomach and reconnected to resected small intestine. Bypassing the entire duodenum and the beginning of the jejunum makes this procedure both malabsorptive and restrictive.3 Gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy both utilize restrictive processes to reduce the stomach volume and rate of nutrient intake.3 The most common bariatric surgical procedure is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) which like the other procedures is considered effective for promoting weight loss.1,2,3 However, since each surgery has restrictive properties, there is potential for altered medication absorption, through a similar mechanism.
Oral bioavailability of any drug in any patient is affected by drug formulation and patient specific factors. There are additional changes associated with obesity that can impact the pharmacokinetics of medications including altered expression and function of cytochrome (CYP) P450, conjugation enzymes, enzyme transporters, and tissue concentrations following gastric absorption.4 Adding bariatric surgery into this mix makes it difficult to create a model that successfully predicts the pharmacokinetics for medication in this specific population. Some medications have been studied to better understand the role that gastric bypass can play in oral absorption, but results show that it is likely impossible to draw a general conclusion.5 This is because the effects of some orally administered medications remain unchanged, some are increased, and others may increase or decrease because their passage through the gut is dependent on efflux pumps controlled by p-glycoproteins. 6,7,8
Currently, limited data is available describing how specific oral analgesics are affected by gastric bypass. It has been demonstrated that morphine metabolism is not altered in morbidly obese populations, however, there is decreased elimination, which raises the blood levels of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G).6 It is important to note that respectively the M3G and M6G metabolites cause neuropathy and traditional opioid activity leading to potential adverse effects and overdose. When compared with age and body mass index matched control subjects, patients who underwent RYGB had similar area under the curve, maximum concentration, and other pharmacokinetic parameters after oral administration of morphine sustained-release (SR).5 In addition to pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacodynamic parameters were also measured. It was found that mean respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were similar between groups, while mean drowsiness was superior in the group that had undergone RYGB.5 Therefore, it was concluded that no dose adjustment is necessary for morphine sustained release (SR) formulations following RYGB surgery.
For morphine immediate release (IR) formulations, the effect of RYGB surgery is much more apparent. Morphine IR 30 mg was given to patients and subsequently pharmacokinetics were studied before RYGB surgery, 7-15 days after surgery, and then 6 months after RYGB.6 From this it was found that at 7-15 days after surgery time to maximum concentration (tmax) was 2 times lower than prior to surgery and maximum concentration (Cmax) was 1.7 times higher.6 Even 6 months after RYGB surgery, the changes in Cmax and tmax remained significantly altered with Cmax 3.3 times higher and tmax 7.5 times lower than baseline measurements.6 Additionally, the absorption rate (ka) for morphine was found to be four times higher 7-15 days after surgery and at least 20 times higher 6 months after surgery.6 Independent of the loss of BMI that follows RYGB, ka increases significantly with time after surgery, leading to a higher Cmax and an increased chance for adverse effects, including an increased risk for overdose even if the morphine dose isn’t increased. Given this increased risk, naloxone should be provided to patients using morphine and other opioid medications post bariatric surgery in case the surgery leads to an increase in opioid serum concentration.
Similar data regarding pharmacokinetic changes after bariatric surgery is not currently available for many other analgesic medications. Until data becomes available, clinicians can use information about the physiochemical properties of drugs in combination with the anatomic changes that occur with gastric bypass to predict which medications are the most reasonable to use post-surgery. Following the RYGB procedure, a smaller stomach size and shorter length of the small intestine decreases the surface area available for drug absorption as well as the time spent in the small intestine. This has theoretical potential to affect the proper absorption of extended release formulations. Due to the smaller size of the stomach pouch that is formed during the RYGB surgical procedure, there are fewer protons being pumped into the stomach, creating a higher pH than that found in a healthy patient.2 Changes to stomach pH can affect the amount of the drug that becomes ionized, leading to a decreased absorption of weak acids and increased absorption of basic medications.2
Besides changes in absorption, other pharmacokinetic changes can be theorized for a patient that has undergone RYGB such as changes to metabolism. Since the intestines, an important site for drug metabolism, are partially bypassed in RYGB patients, there is theoretical concern that gastric metabolism of certain drugs may be decreased.2,9 Multiple CYP450 enzymes and transporters are located within the small intestines and any drug that relies on these enzymes or transporters for normal metabolism may be affected by RYGB bariatric surgery. Any bariatric procedure in and of itself does not affect the distribution of medications, but the weight loss associated with it can lead to decreases in the volume of distribution. Additionally, with a decrease in adipose tissue, there is potential for toxicity of highly lipophilic drugs in this patient population despite previous dose stabilization.9
Due to the higher stomach pH and smaller stomach size that is present following RYGB, stomach ulceration can cause additional complications in this patient population.2 Given this increased risk of complications associated with ulceration, careful selection and use of NSAIDs, if required, is necessary to maintain patient safety. Since patients with peptic ulcer history are at the highest risk for developing marginal ulcers following gastric bypass surgery, consideration of patient history and comorbid conditions can allow for safe and effective use of NSAIDs for these patients. Moderate use of aspirin and other NSAIDs was not demonstrated to increase the risk for ulcers, but frequent and higher doses increased the rates of ulcers as compared to patients not using NSAIDs.10 Similarly, the use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) in patients post RYGB did not increase the rate of ulceration as compared to patients not taking any NSAIDs.11 If use of an NSAID is required, liquid dosage forms when available can help to promote absorption. In some cases, if not commercially available, your pharmacist may be able to compound a liquid formulation. Additionally, ibuprofen, COX-2 selective NSAIDS, or adding on an antacid to serve as a buffer when aspirin is used can promote more rapid absorption, which can be beneficial for patient’s post-bariatric surgery. Acetaminophen is not thought to be as affected by the change in stomach pH and it undergoes the majority of absorption in a portion of the intestines that is not disturbed by gastric bypass.2 Therefore, it is predicted that acetaminophen pharmacokinetics are not largely changed following RYG. Similarly, tramadol is thought to be minimally affected by pH changes within the stomach and small intestines due to its relatively high pKa and it is less dependent on bile acids for absorption, which can additionally minimize changes in bioavailability.2
Another option for patients with RYGB is to utilize non-oral analgesic alternatives which may vary based on the indication for treatment. Since these medications bypass the alterations in gastric anatomy there is less variability in pharmacokinetics as a result of any bariatric surgical procedure. Transdermal options such as lidocaine, buprenorphine (Butrans) and fentanyl are viable options for use in the bariatric patient requiring medications for pain management. These options by design do not require absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making dosing more predictable in patients with an altered GI metabolism. Other topical options in the form of creams and gels including lidocaine, methyl salicylate, and diclofenac are some additional choices available for use in local pain which would be unaffected by changes to the GI tract following bariatric surgery. Additionally, transmucosal medications which are absorbed through the buccal membranes would provide another way to provide medication to patients following bariatric surgery that would avoid the surgical changes to the stomach and intestines. Options such as buprenorphine (Belbuca), fentanyl, and sublingual morphine are possibilities for use in acute, chronic, and cancer pain. Taking patient specific factors into consideration can help the clinician choose between these and other non-oral alternatives to control pain in this patient population.
Given the limited data that is currently available for these patients, there are safe alternative options to conventional oral analgesic medications such as transdermal, topical, and transmucosal products. Should use of an oral analgesic be necessary, the physiochemical properties of the medication, the anatomic changes that occur with bariatric surgery, and the dosage form, in combination with more frequent monitoring are the keys to understanding the potential pharmacokinetic changes that may occur with the use of oral analgesic options.
Various dosage forms and alternatives as described herein are areas in which pharmacist expertise is too often overlooked. It is a clear opportunity for pharmacist and prescriber collaboration to benefit the patient.
Bio: Megan A. Gerken is a 2019 PharmD Candidate at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. She recently completed an advanced pharmacy practice rotation with the multidisciplinary team at Hometown Health Center in Schenectady, NY under the mentorship of Dr. Jacqueline Cleary. After graduation she has plans to continue her career as a community pharmacist in upstate New York.
- Ronis MJ, Shankar K, Badger TM. Toxic Effects of Calories. In: Klaassen CD. Eds. Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Sciences of Poisons, 9th edition New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com.acphs.idm.oclc.org/content.aspx?bookid=2462§ionid=202678146. Accessed December 06, 2018.
- Smith A, Henriksen B, Cohen A. Pharmacokinetic considerations in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients. Am J of Health Syst Pharm. 2011;68(23):2241-2247. doi:10.2146/ajhp100630
- Sheehan A, Chen JT, Yanovski JA, et al. Obesity. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC et al Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, 10e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com.acphs.idm.oclc.org/content.aspx?bookid=1861§ionid=133894259. Accessed January 07,2019.
- De Hoogd S, Välitalo P, Dahan A, et al. Influence of Morbid Obesity on the Pharmacokinetics of Morphine, Morphine-3-Glucuronide, and Morphine-6-Glucuronide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017;56(12):1577-1587. doi:10.1007/s40262-017-0544-2
- Hachon L, Reis R, Labat L. Morphine and metabolites plasmal levels after administration of sustained release morphine in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass subjects versus matched control subjects. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2017;13(11):1869-1874. doi:10.1016/j.soard.2017.07.030
- Lloret-Linares C, Hirt D, Bardin C. Effect of a Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on the Pharmacokinetics of Oral Morphine Using a Population Approach. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2014;53(10):919-930. doi:10.1007/s40262-014-0163-0
- Fudin J, Fontenelle DV, Payne A. Rifampin Reduces Oral Morphine Absorption; A Case of Transdermal Buprenorphine Selection Based on Morphine Pharmacokinetics. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy. 2012 December;26(4):362–367.
- Fudin J, Fontenelle DV, Fudin HR, Carlyn C, Ashley CC, Hinden DA. Potential P-glycoprotein Pharmacokinetic Interaction of Telaprevir with Morphine or Methadone. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy. 2013 August;. 27(3): 261-267.)
- Bland C, Quidley A, Love B. Long-term pharmacotherapy considerations in the bariatric surgery patient. Am J of Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73(16):1230-1242. doi:10.2146/ajhp151062
- Sverdén E, Mattsson F, Sondén A, et al. Risk Factors for Marginal Ulcer After Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity: A Population-based Cohort Study. Ann Surg. 2016 Apr;263(4):733-737. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001300
- Kang X, Hong D, Anvari M, et al. Is Daily Low-Dose Aspirin Safe to Take Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Obesity Surgery? Obes Surg. 2017 May;27(5):1261-1265. doi: 10.1007/s11695-016-2462-z
29 thoughts on “Opioid Absorption and Options Following Gastric Bypass Surgery”
I had sleeve surgery in 2016 ,lost all the weight and fat. Now, I’m having severe lower back pain and my doctor has prescribed hydrocodone 5 325 twice a day. I’m still in agony! Are the pills passing through my sleeve/stomach without dissolving? Should I crush the pills and swallow with a spoon of yogurt?
Pat, You need to let your doctor know. Hydrocodone is generally well-absorbed under these conditions. Perhaps options instead of or in addition to opioids would make more sense. Other options could also include patches, some of which work locally, and others of which are absorbed into the circulation (i.e. Butrans Transdermal Patch).
I take Tylenol-4 with 60mg Codeine 4 times a day for extreme foot neuropathies. I was prescribed Gabapentin as well which does little to mitigate the foot pain at night. It really feels like fire ants eating my toes. This should be working, right? I’ve been on Tylenol-4 for a few years at the same dosage. A year ago I had a successful Roux-en-y bypass that got me off of the diabetes charts. It’s been since that time that my neuropathies have become unbearable. I’m loathe to ask my very conservative doctor to up my Tylenol-4 prescription. Would malabsorption following the RnY bypass be causing my neuropathy to be victorious over the pain medication?
Codeine absorption may be affected. But more importantly, Tylenol and/or codeine have almost no benefit for treating any neuropathy. See Zorn KE, Fudin J. Treatment of Neuropathic Pain: the Role of Unique Opioid Agents. Practical Pain Management. 2011 May; 11 (4): 26-33.
I am confused to this article. I am a chronic pain patient, I have long acting Morphine and shot acting Dilaudid. I am about to undergo Gastric Sleeve. Can someone sum up what I might need to know about the use of my medication after surgery. With new laws it is very complicated to just walk in and get new scripts. To my understanding I am at my daily Morphine equivalent as well so I am concerned about pain.
Extended release morphine or hydromorphone might not be absorbed as well as the short acting formulations of both.
I had roux en y gastric bypass 16 yrs ago and because of 7 knee surgeries and being laid up so much I have gained almost all my weight back! I have degenerative disc disease, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia!! My pain management doctor has me on oxymorphone Er 30mg 2/day and oxymorphone IR 10mg 4/day! Even with these meds and dose I’m still in so much pain but the doctor just doesn’t seem to understand about the absorption issues with the gastric bypass or is just too worried about the laws and the opioid epidemic!! I have been tested and I do have the issue with CYP450 absorption!! I have done research trying to find a pain specialist that understands the absorption issues!! I don’t know where to go from here!!! Do you have any suggestions for the Lansing MI area?
Trish, I don’t know anybody in that area. My group offers virtual consultations, but the request needs to come directly from your doctor. See http://paindr.com/virtual-consultations/
I am 5 years post Ruix&Y surgery and 4 years post Spinal disc fusion. I have severe back pain caused by disc degeneration and may end up having additional surgery. I have noticed that percocet in the past 5 years has very little effect for pain compared to prior to the Ruix&Y. Is this normal?
A colleague had gastric bypass surgery many years ago. She is now actually quite thin. She does have other chronic pain issues (degenerative disc disease) and was prescribed
Buprenorphine-Naloxone. 2 mg/0.5 mg qid for pain. However, at a recent appointment with her pain management provider, she tested negative. The provider accused her of diversion and will not prescribe for her anymore. My friend thinks she tested negative because of her gastric bypass that she had many years ago. Is this possible? Thank you
She should net test negative specifically due to gastric bypass, because this type of buprenorphine is absorbed thru the cheek and avoids gastric absorption altogether. Notwithstanding, some urine tests are not sensitive enough t pick up buprenorphine, so it would depend on the type and quality of the urine test performed.
Both of my children have PRSSI which necessitated a auto-islet total pancrectomy transplant. Part of the transplant is a roux en y. My kids have scare tissue as well as continued inflammation in the GI system. Pain has been an issue. They have been on pain meds and are on many other meds. There is evidence that my daughter is not absorbing these meds. She is also on other meds. At time she gets confused. At times I think the meds work and at times she reports no difference (as well as my son). I have brought up my concern about malabsorption issues, their meds and pain but no one seems to be concerned EVEN though they put on her chart she was ‘addicted’ as no pain meds showed up in system – afterwards there was an apology when test was done in-patient after they gave her pain meds and watched her. I believe that at times it does absorb and some times it doesn’t – I am talking about many of her meds. She has complex health and I don’t want my kids on all these meds. They do need pain control but I am unsure that what they have is working because of malabsorption. I am also highly concerned because they have to do pee tests – it has been demonstrated IN A CONTROLLED SETTING that there are issues with this. I am concerned for my kids as well as their pain doctor that we do have good understanding of what works. I am looking at doing the consult (even if out of my pocket) but already broke so want to know if you think it would be beneficial. We live in an area that doesn’t have lots of access to various strategies to manage pain.
Beth, When you say “doing the consult”, I don;t know what you mean. Do you mean a consult with a pain doctor, a consult with our group, or something else?
I am 20 years out of by pass surgery and feel medications do not work well for me. Is it an absorption issue? My doctor gives me norco for pain on my arm due to tendenopathy but it does not seem to work. Tramodal does nothing for me. I have tried topical creams and lidocaine patches with little results. So, I am wondering now if my body is just not breaking down the pain medicine and I am not getting the full effects.
Melissa, You should absorb some of the medicines. Tedonopathies usually respond well to topical NSAIDs such as diclofenac gel. Have you tried that?
I had a bad accident and NSAIDS work great however I get ulcers i now will use what was stated in this article this has been helpful
I had Gastric bypass (RYGB) since 2013. Recently taking tramadol 30mg for pain Please confirm does this work faster in patients like me and how long before I feel the effects.
PJ, tramadol will not work faster.
I am 9 yrs post lap band surgery and one caveat I ran into was being overfilled to the point where I was having aspirations at night, which was causing some stomach contents to spill over into my lungs. I was also slowly causing a “2nd stomach” above my band/at the bottom of my esophagus. I had to have the contents of my band removed to ensure there was no dysphagia or else I could very easily have had disastrous effects as I was on extended release Oxycontin at the time. Had one of the pills became lodged in the “2nd stomach” unknowingly and then I took my following dose, I very easily could’ve had TWO doses in my body at one time. This would be a perfect example of why naloxone would and should be given to certain individuals. Just wanted to share that and sorry if it was a little on the graphic side.
I’m on Methadone for pain and I’m obese and I was told that they wont do the surgery cause I’m on it, is that true
Frederick, I am unable to answer this question because I don’t know specifics of your case. Methadone alone and obesity alone are not generally contraindications to surgery, but there are many factors, especially in tandem with obesity that could preclude surgery.
This was a great read. Very informative and provides a better understanding about pain meds following surgery. I am 7-8 months since surgery. I’ve lost almost 130 pounds. I have found that the best pain meds for me due to other conditions is Hydrocondone. Currently at 10mg, which is the highest dose. However, continued use of this narcotic med can make your body ammuned and become less affective. Many people use this med to “get high”, but for me it works differently. It does what it was set out to do, block pain receptors. Personally, I dont see how people overuse this med because I dont get that result. Yet Dr.’s are very leary about giving out this medication due to the opioid epidemic in this country. I just know what works for me and it gets annoying when it comes to getting the RX filled and there is always pushback. All in all this was probably one of the best reads I’ve seen. Good job!
Is any side effects come after gastric bypass surgery?
Cheryl, Please be more specific on ths questions – I’m not sure what you are asking.
Cheryl, 1st 3 days after gastric bypass you will probably be in the hospital taking serious pain meds bc the pain from the gas filling your insides needs to release from your body. It took 6 days for me to actually pass wind and then be released from hospital day 7. To be honest, the pain was probably the worst pain I’ve ever felt and anyone who has had this won’t tell you that because some may change their minds about getting the surgery completed. However, I will say that even though I endured that initial setback of pain, the results of the surgery outweigh that pain. I was 355 and now 225. I feel much healthier and I can move finally. Getting passed the mindset of eating broth, pudding, and yogurt seemed like it would never end bc all I used to eat was pizza and burgers. Now I only eat fruits, veg’s, and meat. My body is grateful for this surgery bc now I have extended my life at the very least 10 years!!! That was the ultimate goal. The surgery was the best option for me and was worth every symptom or setback.
This helps so much! I had an Antrectomy with Billroth II procedure done about 11 months ago for peptic ulcer disease, and I have been fighting to figure out my meds and diet since. Everything has changed so rapidly for me. I just recently found out that my “new” system absorbs my oral medicine faster causing me to have to need to take it more frequently. I also cannot use the transdermal patches because they burn my skin. Thanks to this article, I have learned about, and can show my pain physician, the transmucosal forms that might help me. I have lost a lot of weight because I have not felt hungry enough and am now suffering from malnutrition due to other factors, but these might be a possibility for me. Thank you so much for this research, and God bless!!!
It’s good to know more about bariatric surgery. I didn’t realize that there isn’t a lot of data describing how analgesics are affected by gastric bypass surgery. My sister is considering this surgery, so I’ll give her this to read.
In my heart of hearts I know that we need to be concerned about this. I have observed one patient suicide due to analgesic failure post gastric bypass. I am convinced that the failure to account for this factor led to completely erroneous dosing conclusions and patient abandonment with a self administered gunshot as the result.
I know of another case right now that is in danger of the same outcome.
Thank you Dr. Cleary! This is important!